solid-state drive (SSD) (also known as a solid-state disk [1][2][3] orelectronic disk,[4] though it contains no actual “disk” of any kind, nor motors to “drive” the disks) is a data storage device using integrated circuitassemblies as memory to store data persistently. SSD technology uses electronic interfaces compatible with traditional block input/output (I/O) hard disk drives, thus permitting simple replacement in common applications.[5]Also, new I/O interfaces like SATA Express are created to keep up with speed advancements in SSD technology.

SSDs have no moving mechanical components. This distinguishes them from traditional electromechanical magnetic disks such as hard disk drives(HDDs) or floppy disks, which contain spinning disks and movable read/write heads.[6] Compared with electromechanical disks, SSDs are typically more resistant to physical shock, run silently, have lower access time, and lesslatency.[7] However, while the price of SSDs has continued to decline in 2012,[8] SSDs are still about 7 to 8 times more expensive per unit of storage than HDDs.

As of 2010, most SSDs use NAND-based flash memory, which retains data without power.

For applications requiring fast access, but not necessarily data persistence after power loss, SSDs may be constructed from random-access memory (RAM). Such devices may employ separate power sources, such as batteries, to maintain data after power loss.[5]

Hybrid drives or solid state hybrid drives (SSHD) combine the features of SSDs and HDDs in the same unit, containing a large hard disk drive and an SSD cache to improve performance of frequently accessed data


Flash memory is an electronic non-volatile computer storage medium that can be electrically erased and reprogrammed.

Flash memory developed from EEPROM (electrically erasable programmable read-only memory). There are two main types of flash memory, which are named after the NAND and NOR logic gates. The internal characteristics of the individual flash memory cells exhibit characteristics similar to those of the corresponding gates.

Whereas EEPROMs had to be completely erased before being rewritten, NAND type flash memory may be written and read in blocks (or pages) which are generally much smaller than the entire device. The NOR type allows a single machine word (byte) to be written or read independently.

The NAND type is primarily used in main memorymemory cardsUSB flash drivessolid-state drives, and similar products, for general storage and transfer of data. The NOR type, which allows true random access and therefore direct code execution, is used as a replacement for the olderEPROM and as an alternative to certain kinds of ROM applications, whereas NOR flash memory may emulate ROM primarily at the machine code level; many digital designs need ROM (or PLA) structures for other uses, often at significantly higher speeds than (economical) flash memory may achieve.[citation needed] NAND or NOR flash memory is also often used to store configuration data in numerous digital products, a task previously made possible by EEPROMs or battery-powered static RAM.


Dynamic random-access memory (DRAM) is a type of random-access memory that stores each bit of data in a separate capacitor within anintegrated circuit. The capacitor can be either charged or discharged; these two states are taken to represent the two values of a bit, conventionally called 0 and 1. Since capacitors leak charge, the information eventually fades unless the capacitor charge is refreshed periodically. Because of this refresh requirement, it is a dynamic memory as opposed to SRAM and other static memory.

The main memory (the “RAM”) in personal computers is dynamic RAM (DRAM). It is the RAM in desktopslaptops and workstation computers as well as some of the RAM of video game consoles.

The advantage of DRAM is its structural simplicity: only one transistor and a capacitor are required per bit, compared to four or six transistors in SRAM. This allows DRAM to reach very high densities. Unlike flash memory, DRAM is volatile memory (vs. non-volatile memory), since it loses its data quickly when power is removed. The transistors and capacitors used are extremely small; billions can fit on a single memory chip

Static random-access memory (SRAM) is a type of semiconductormemory that uses bistable latching circuitry to store each bit. The termstatic differentiates it from dynamic RAM (DRAM) which must be periodicallyrefreshed. SRAM exhibits data remanence,[1] but it is still volatile in the conventional sense that data is eventually lost when the memory is not powered.

In computers[edit]

SRAM is also used in personal computers, workstations, routers and peripheral equipment: CPU register files, internalCPU caches and external burst mode SRAM caches, hard disk buffers, router buffers, etc. LCD screens and printersalso normally employ static RAM to hold the image displayed (or to be printed).,2817,2404258,00.asp

The traditional spinning hard drive (HDD) is the basic nonvolatile storage on a computer. That is, it doesn’t “go away” like the data on the system memory when you turn the system off. Hard drives are essentially metal platters with a magnetic coating. That coating stores your data, whether that data consists weather reports from the last century, a high-definition copy of the Star Wars trilogy, or your digital music collection. A read/write head on an arm accesses the data while the platters are spinning in a hard drive enclosure.

An SSD does much the same job functionally (saving your data while the system is off, booting your system, etc.) as an HDD, but instead of a magnetic coating on top of platters, the data is stored on interconnected flash memory chips that retain the data even when there’s no power present. The chips can either be permanently installed on the system’s motherboard (like on some small laptops and netbooks), on a PCI/PCIe card (in some high-end workstations), or in a box that’s sized, shaped, and wired to slot in for a laptop or desktop’s hard drive (common on everything else). These flash memory chips differ from the flash memory in USB thumb drives in the type and speed of the memory. That’s the subject of a totally separate technical treatise, but suffice it to say that the flash memory in SSDs is faster and more reliable than the flash memory in USB thumb drives. SSDs are consequently more expensive than USB thumb drives for the same capacities.

The internal cable interface has changed from Serial to IDE to SCSI to SATA over the years, but it essentially does the same thing: connects the hard drive to the PC’s motherboard so your data can be processed. Today’s 2.5- and 3.5-inch drives use SATA interfaces almost exclusively (at least on most PCs and Macs). Capacities have grown from multiple megabytes to multiple terabytes, an increase of millions fold. Current 3.5-inch HDDs max out at 4TB, with 2.5-inch drives at 2TB max.

Fragmentation: Because of their rotary-like recording surfaces, HDD surfaces work best with larger files that are laid down in contiguous blocks. That way, the drive head can start and end its read in one continuous motion. When hard drives start to fill up, large files can become scattered around the disk platter, which is otherwise known as fragmentation. While read/write algorithms have improved where the effect in minimized, the fact of the matter is that HDDs can become fragmented, while SSDs don’t care where the data is stored on its chips, since there’s no physical read head. SSDs are inherently faster.


Further Reading

how to find the type of ram in windows 7 ?

In computingDDR3 SDRAM, an abbreviation for double data rate type three synchronous dynamic random access memory is a modern type of dynamic random access memory (DRAM) with a high bandwidth (“double data rate“) interface, and has been in use since 2007. It is the higher-speed successor to DDR and DDR2 and predecessor to DDR4 synchronous dynamic random access memory (SDRAM) chips. DDR3 SDRAM is neither forward nor backward compatible with any earlier type of random access memory (RAM) due to different signaling voltages, timings, and other factors.


The primary benefit of DDR3 SDRAM over its immediate predecessor, DDR2 SDRAM, is its ability to transfer data at twice the rate (eight times the speed of its internal memory arrays), enabling higher bandwidth or peak data rates. With two transfers per cycle of a quadrupled clock signal, a 64-bit wide DDR3 module may achieve a transfer rate of up to 64 times the memory clock speed megahertz (MHz) in megabytes per second (MB/s). With data being transferred 64 bits at a time per memory module, DDR3 SDRAM gives a transfer rate of (memory clock rate) × 4 (for bus clock multiplier) × 2 (for data rate) × 64 (number of bits transferred) / 8 (number of bits/byte). Thus with a memory clock frequency of 100 MHz, DDR3 SDRAM gives a maximum transfer rate of 6400 MB/s. In addition, the DDR3 standard permits DRAM chip capacities of up to 8 Gbit.

Intel chipsets

This is a list of motherboard chipsets made by Intel. It is divided into three main categories: those that use the PCI bus for interconnection (the 4xx series), those that connect using specialized “Hub Links” (the 8xx series), and those that connect using PCI Express (the 9xx series).

Q : what are intel Chipset drivers

Q: How To Identify Your Intel® Chipset

MINE: Intel(R) 6 Series/C200 Series Chipset Family :



Serial ATA (Advanced Technology Attachment) (SATA) is a computer bus interface that connects host bus adapters to mass storage devices such as hard disk drives and optical drives. Serial ATA[2] replaces the older AT Attachmentstandard (ATA later referred to as Parallel ATA or PATA), offering several advantages over the older interface: reduced cable size and cost (seven conductors instead of 40), native hot swapping, faster data transfer through higher signalling rates, and more efficient transfer through an (optional) I/O queuing protocol.

SATA host adapters and devices communicate via a high-speed serial cable over two pairs of conductors. In contrast, parallel ATA (the redesignation for the legacy ATA specifications) used a 16-bit wide data bus with many additional support and control signals, all operating at much lower frequency. To ensure backward compatibility with legacy ATA software and applications, SATA uses the same basic ATA and ATAPI command-set as legacy ATA devices.

SATA has replaced parallel ATA in consumer desktop and laptop computers, and has largely replaced PATA in new embedded applications. SATA’s market share in the desktop PC market was 99% in 2008.[3] PATA remains widely used in industrial and embedded applications that use CompactFlash storage, even though the new CFast standard is based on SATA.



The Serial ATA Spec includes logic for SATA device hotplugging. Devices and motherboards that meet the interoperability specification are capable of hot plugging.

Advanced Host Controller Interface[edit]

Advanced Host Controller Interface (AHCI) is an open host controller interface published and used by Intel, which has become a de facto standard. It allows the use of advanced features of SATA such as hotplug and native command queuing (NCQ). If AHCI is not enabled by the motherboard and chipset, SATA controllers typically operate in “IDE[7] emulation” mode, which does not allow access to device features not supported by the ATA/IDE standard.

Windows device drivers that are labeled as SATA are often running in IDE emulation mode unless they explicitly state that they are AHCI mode, in RAID mode, or a mode provided by a proprietary driver and command set that allowed access to SATA’s advanced features before AHCI became popular. Modern versions of Microsoft WindowsMac OS XFreeBSDLinux with version 2.6.19 onward,[8] as well as Solaris and OpenSolaris, include support for AHCI, but older operating systems such as Windows XP do not. Even in those instances, a proprietary driver may have been created for a specific chipset, such as Intel‘s.[9]


Device Manager Terminology for my PC Configuration

Device Manager Terminology for my PC Configuration

  1. ACPI x64
    1. ACPI stands for Advanced Configuration and Power Interface. It’s a standard method for controlling power states of the PC and attached peripherals. This is what allows for sleep mode and many other things.
      x64 implies that the system is running with the x86 64 bit extensions
    2. It’s a standard that is implemented by the operating system, firmware (BIOS/UEFI), microprocessor, and attached peripherals. Significant parts of it are exposed as data tables and functions in the system firmware along with device-specific interfaces. It shows up in device manager because it has driver behaviour.
    3. A 32 bit machine is limited to 4GB of memory, and an X64 is limited to about 17,179,869,184 gigabytes, 17,179,869 terabytes, or about 16 exabytes of RAM, and an X86 is limited to running 32 bit operating systems, whereas an X64 should be able to run both an 64 and a 32 bit operating system.

  1. NVIDIA NVS 300
    1. The NVIDIA® NVS™ 300 high resolution, multi-display business graphics solution, designed for small and standard form factor systems, delivers reliable hardware and software for a stable business environment. Tested on leading business applications, NVS 300 is capable of driving two VGA, single link DVI, DisplayPort or HDMI displays. With NVIDIA Mosaic™ and NVIDIA nView® technologies built in, you can span and efficiently manage your entire Windows desktop across multiple displays.

  2. IDE ATA/ATAPI Controllers
    1. IDE – A hard drive whose disk controller is integrated into the drive eliminating the need for a controller cable and thus increasing speed as well as reducing price
      ATA – Also known as IDE. ATA stands for AT Attachment. An interface use to connect hard disk drives, CD-ROM drives, etc. ATA-1 supports 8/16-bit interface that transfer up to 8.3MB/s, and PIO modes of 0, 1, and 2. It is a standard under the ANSI document number X3.221-1994 (which approved on 12 May 1994), and originated from Compaq, Western Digital Corporation, and Control Data Corporation.
      ATAPI – refers to improvements made to ATA drives in 1998.
    2. HID compliant mouse
      1. HID stands for Human Interface Device. This means that u can connect the HID devices to the USB port. THe HID compatible mouse has the USB port.
      3. generic pnp monitor
        1. PnP = Plug ‘n’ Play
        2. Generic – means no special type
          PNP – means “plug ‘n’ play” – in other words the OS already has the driver for this type of equipment.
        3. network adapter
          2. network interface controller (NIC, also known as a network interface cardnetwork adapterLAN adapter, and by similar terms) is a computer hardware component that connects a computer to a computer network.[1]
          3. Early network interface controllers were commonly implemented on expansion cards that plugged into a computer bus; the low cost and ubiquity of the Ethernet standard means that most newer computers have a network interface built into the motherboard.
          4. intel 82579LM gigabit network connection
            2. An Ethernet controller is a computer processing device used to handle network communications. Ethernet controllers come in several varieties and operate on several speeds depending on the controllers used throughout the network.
            3. it is a circuit card that you install on the inside of your is easily installed in slots on the inside of your computer. it allows you to connect an ethernet cord between your computer and your modem or router. which is then connected to your phone line. thru the telephone jack on your wall.
            4. The network controller implements the electronic circuitry required to communicate using a specific physical layer and data link layer standard such as EthernetWi-Fi or Token Ring. This provides a base for a full network protocol stack, allowing communication among small groups of computers on the same LAN and large-scale network communications through routable protocols, such as IP.
            5. Although other network technologies exist (e.g. token ring), Ethernet has achieved near-ubiquity since the mid-1990s.
            6. Every network controller for an IEEE 802 network such as Ethernet, Wi-Fi, or Token Ring, and every FDDI network controller, has a unique 48-bit serial number called a MAC address, which is stored in read-only memory. Every computer on an Ethernet network must have at least one controller. Normally it is safe to assume that no two network controllers will share the same address, because controller vendors purchase blocks of addresses from the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE) and assign a unique address to each controller at the time of manufacture.[2]
            7. The NIC allows computers to communicate over a computer network. It is both an OSI layer 1 (physical layer) and layer 2 (data link layer) device, as it provides physical access to a networking medium and, for IEEE 802 networks and FDDI, provides a low-level addressing system through the use of MAC addresses. It allows users to connect to each other either by using cables or wirelessly.
            8. Ports (COM and LTP)
              1. LPT stands for Line Printing Terminal and is now a rather redundant name for a Parallel Port, commonly used for connecting a printer to the PC.
              2. COM (Communication port[1]) is the original, yet still common, name of the serial port interface on IBM PC-compatible computers. It might refer not only to physical ports, but also to virtual ports, such as ports created by Bluetooth or USB-to-serial adapters.
              3. Most PC-compatible systems in the 1980s and 1990s had one or two ports, with communication interfaces defined like this:

i.      COM1I/O port 0x3F8, IRQ 4

ii.      COM2: I/O port 0x2F8, IRQ 3

iii.      COM3: I/O port 0x3E8, IRQ 4

iv.      COM4: I/O port 0x2E8, IRQ 3

As of 2007, most systems ship with one or no physical COM ports.

  1. In computer networking, a port is an application-specific or process-specific software construct serving as a communications endpoint in a computer’s host operating system. A port is associated with an IP address of the host, as well as the type of protocol used for communication. The purpose of ports is to uniquely identify different applications or processes running on a single computer and thereby enable them to share a single physical connection to a packet-switched network like the Internet.
  2. The protocols that primarily use ports are the Transport Layer protocols, such as the Transmission Control Protocol (TCP) and the User Datagram Protocol (UDP) of the Internet Protocol Suite. A port is identified for each address and protocol by a 16-bit number, commonly known as the port number. The port number, added to a computer’s IP address, completes the destination address for a communications session. That is, data packets are routed across the network to a specific destination IP address, and then, upon reaching the destination computer, are further routed to the specific process bound to the destination port number.
  3. Note that it is the combination of IP address and port number together that must be globally unique. Thus, different IP addresses or protocols may use the same port number for communication; e.g., on a given host or interface UDP and TCP may use the same port number, or on a host with two interfaces, both addresses may be associated with a port having the same number.
  4. Of the thousands of enumerated ports, about 250 well-known ports are reserved by convention to identify specific service types on a host. In the client-server model of application architecture, ports are used to provide a multiplexing service on each server-side port number that network clients connect to for service initiation, after which communication can be reestablished on other connection-specific port numbers.
  5. intel active management technology sol com3
    1. Intel Active Management Technology (AMT) is hardware-based technology for remotely managing and securing PCs out-of-band (In computingout-of-band management (sometimes called lights-out management or LOM) involves the use of a dedicated management channel for device maintenance. It allows a system administrator to monitor and manageservers and other network equipment by remote control regardless of whether the machine is powered on, or if an operating system is installed or functional.

By contrast, in-band management like VNC or SSH is based on software that must be installed on the remote system being managed and only works after the operating system has been booted. This solution may be cheaper, but it does not allow access to BIOS settings, or the reinstallation of the operating system and cannot be used to fix problems that prevent the system from booting.

Both in-band and out-of-band management are usually done through the network connection, but an out-of-band management card can use a physically separated network connector if preferred. A remote management card usually has at least partially independent power supply, and can power the main machine on and off through the network.).

Currently, Intel AMT is available in desktops, servers, ultrabooks, tablets, and laptops with Intel Core vPro processor family, including Intel Core i3, i5, i7, and Intel Xeon processor E3-1200 product family. ( )

  1. intel core i5 2400 processor 3.10 ghz
    4. Sandy Bridge is the codename for a microarchitecture developed by Intel beginning in 2005 for central processing units in computers to replace the Nehalem microarchitecture. Intel demonstrated a Sandy Bridge processor in 2009, and released first products based on the architecture in January 2011 under the Core brand.[1][2]

Sandy Bridge implementations targeted a 32 nanometer manufacturing process based on planar double-gate transistors

Upgraded features from Nehalem include:

  • 32 KB data + 32 KB instruction L1 cache (3 clocks) and 256 KB L2 cache (8 clocks) per core.
  • Shared L3 cache includes the processor graphics (LGA 1155).
  • 64-byte cache line size.
  • Two load/store operations per CPU cycle for each memory channel.
  • Decoded micro-operation cache (uop cache) and enlarged, optimized branch predictor.
  • Improved performance for transcendental mathematicsAES encryption (AES instruction set), and SHA-1 hashing.
  • 256-bit/cycle ring bus interconnect between cores, graphics, cache and System Agent Domain.
  • Advanced Vector Extensions (AVX) 256-bit instruction set with wider vectors, new extensible syntax and rich functionality.
  • Intel Quick Sync Video, hardware support for video encoding and decoding.
  • Up to 8 physical cores or 16 logical cores through Hyper-threading.
  • Integration of the GMCH (integrated graphics and memory controller) and processor into a single die inside the processor package. In contrast, Sandy Bridge’s predecessor, Clarkdale, has two separate dies (one for GMCH, one for processor) within the processor package. This tighter integration reduces memory latency even more.
  • A 14- to 19-stage instruction pipeline, depending on the micro-operation cache hit or miss.[7]


  1. Price at introduction (Jan 2011)  $184
  3. Level 1 cache size  ?        4 x 32 KB instruction caches
  4. 4 x 32 KB data caches
  5. Level 2 cache size  ?        4 x 256 KB
  6. Level 3 cache size             6 MB shared cache
  7. # of Cores           4
  8. # of Threads       4
  9. Clock Speed       3.1 GHz
  10. 6M Cache
  11. Max Memory Size (dependent on memory type)             32 GB
  12. Memory Types DDR3-1066/1333
  13. # of Memory Channels  2
  14. Max Memory Bandwidth             21 GB/s
  15. Processor Graphics ‡      Intel® HD Graphics 2000
  16. Graphics Base Frequency             850 MHz
  17. Graphics Max Dynamic Frequency           1.1 GHz
  18. Intel® Turbo Boost Technology ‡              2.0
  19. Intel® vPro Technology ‡              Yes
  20. Intel® Hyper-Threading Technology ‡     No
  21. Intel® Virtualization Technology (VT-x) ‡               Yes
  22. Intel® Virtualization Technology for Directed I/O (VT-d) ‡             Yes
  23. Intel® VT-x with Extended Page Tables (EPT) ‡   Yes
  24. Intel® 64 ‡           Yes
  25. Idle States           Yes
  26. Enhanced Intel SpeedStep® Technology               Yes
  27. Thermal Monitoring Technologies            Yes
  28. Intel® Fast Memory Access         Yes
  29. Intel® Flex Memory Access         Yes
  30. Intel® Identity Protection Technology ‡ Yes


  1. trusted platform module 1.2
    2. The Trusted Platform Module (TPM) is an international standard for a secure cryptoprocessor. The TPM technical specification was written by a computer industry consortium called the Trusted Computing Group (TCG). TheInternational Organization for Standardization (ISO) and the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) standardized the specification as ISO/IEC 11889 in 2009
    4. secure cryptoprocessor is a dedicated computer on a chip or microprocessor for carrying out cryptographic operations, embedded in a packaging with multiple physical security measures, which give it a degree of tamper resistance. Unlike cryptographic processors that output decrypted data onto a bus in a secure environment, a secure cryptoprocessor does not output decrypted data or decrypted program instructions in an environment where security cannot always be maintained.
    5. The purpose of a secure cryptoprocessor is to act as the keystone of a security sub-system, eliminating the need to protect the rest of the sub-system with physical security measures.
    6. Smartcards are probably the most widely deployed form of secure cryptoprocessor, although more complex and versatile secure cryptoprocessors are widely deployed in systems such as Automated teller machines, TV set-top boxes, military applications,[1] and high-security portable communication equipment.
    7.  Cryptoprocessors input program instructions in encrypted form, decrypt the instructions to plain instructions which are then executed within the same cryptoprocessor chip where the decrypted instructions are inaccessibly stored. By never revealing the decrypted program instructions, the cryptoprocessor prevents tampering of programs by technicians who may have legitimate access to the sub-system data bus. This is known as bus encryption. Data processed by a cryptoprocessor is also frequently encrypted.
    8. The Trusted Platform Module (TPM) is an implementation of a secure cryptoprocessor that brings the notion of trusted computing to ordinary PCs by enabling a secure environment. While envisioned by some as being a method to make it much harder to illegally copy copyrightedsoftware, present implementations tend to focus more on providing a tamper-proof boot environment and persistent and volatile storage encryption.
    9. 2nd gen intel core processor DRAM controller etc. Drivers:
    10. Intel(R) 6 Series/C200 Series Chipset Family
      1. A driver is a program that allows a computer to communicate (or talk to) a piece of hardware. The Intel Chipset Software Installation Utility is not a driver and does not include drivers.




motherboard (sometimes alternatively known as the mainboardsystem boardplanar board or logic board,[1] or colloquially, a mobo) is the main printed circuit board (PCB) found in computers and other expandable systems. It holds many of the crucial electronic components of the system, such as the central processing unit (CPU) and memory, and provides connectors for other peripherals. Unlike a backplane, a motherboard contains significant sub-systems such as the processor and other components.

Motherboard specifically refers to a PCB with expansion capability and as the name suggests, this board is the “mother” of all components attached to it, which often include sound cardsvideo cardsnetwork cardshard drives, or other forms of persistent storage; TV tuner cards, cards providing extra USB or FireWire slots and a variety of other custom components (the term mainboard is applied to devices with a single board and no additional expansions or capability, such as controlling boards in televisions, washing machines and other embedded systems).

Two typical components of a CPU are the arithmetic logic unit (ALU), which performs arithmetic and logical operations, and the control unit (CU), which extracts instructions from memory and decodes and executes them, calling on the ALU when necessary.

A motherboard provides the electrical connections by which the other components of the system communicate (talk with each other.) Unlike a backplane, it also contains the central processing unit and hosts other subsystems and devices.

A typical desktop computer has its microprocessormain memory, and other essential components connected to the motherboard. Other components such as external storage, controllers for video display and sound, and peripheraldevices may be attached to the motherboard as plug-in cards or via cables, in modern computers it is increasingly common to integrate some of these peripherals into the motherboard itself.

An important component of a motherboard is the microprocessor’s supporting chipset, which provides the supporting interfaces between the CPU and the various buses and external components. This chipset determines, to an extent, the features and capabilities of the motherboard.

Modern motherboards include:

Additionally, nearly all motherboards include logic and connectors to support commonly used input devices, such as PS/2 connectors for a mouse and keyboard.

chipset is a set of electronic components in an integrated circuit that manages the data flow between the processor, memory and peripherals. It is usually found in the motherboard of a computer. Chipsets are usually designed to work with a specific family of microprocessors. Because it controls communications between the processor and external devices, the chipset plays a crucial role in determining system performance.


Conventional PCI (PCI is an initialism formed from Peripheral Component Interconnect,[1] part of the PCI Local Bus standard), often shortened to just PCI, is a local computer bus for attaching hardware devices in a computer. The PCI bus supports the functions found on a processor bus, but in a standardized format that is independent of any particular processor; devices connected to the PCI bus appear to the processor to be connected directly to the processor bus, and are assigned addresses in the processor’s address space.[2][page needed]

Attached devices can take either the form of an integrated circuit fitted onto the motherboard itself, (called a planar device in the PCI specification) or an expansion card that fits into a slot. The PCI Local Bus was first implemented inIBM PC compatibles, where it displaced the combination of ISA plus one VESA Local Bus as the bus configuration. It has subsequently been adopted for other computer types. Typical PCI cards used in PCs include: network cards,sound cardsmodems, extra ports such as USB or serialTV tuner cards and disk controllers. PCI video cards replaced ISA and VESA cards, until growing bandwidth requirements outgrew the capabilities of PCI; the preferred interface for video cards became AGP (itself a conventional PCI derivative), and then PCI Express.[3